The Bolivian-born Ichazo began teaching programs of self-development in the 1950s.His teaching, which he calls "Protoanalysis", uses the enneagram figure among many other symbols and ideas.While Enneagram teachings have attained some degree of popularity, they have also received criticism including accusations of being pseudoscience, subject to interpretation and difficult to test or validate scientifically.
Sometimes called the "security" and "stress" points, or points of "integration" and "disintegration", some theorists believe these connected points also contribute to a person's overall personality.From this viewpoint, therefore, at least four other points affect a person's overall personality; the two points connected by the lines to the core type and the two wing points.A person may be understood, therefore, to have a core type and one or two wing types which influence but do not change the core type.For some Enneagram theorists the lines connecting the points add further meaning to the information provided by the descriptions of the types.An alternative approach to the subtypes looks at them as three domains or clusters of instincts that result in increased probability of survival (the "preserving" domain), increased skill in navigating the social environment (the "navigating" domain) and increased likelihood of reproductive success (the "transmitting" domain).
From this understanding the subtypes reflect individual differences in the presence of these three separate clusters of instincts.Most, but not all, Enneagram of Personality theorists teach a person's basic type is modified, at least to some extent, by the personality dynamics of the two adjacent types as indicated on the enneagram figure. A person of the Three personality type, for example, is understood to have points Two and Four as their wing types.The circle of the enneagram figure may indicate that the types or points exist on a spectrum rather than as distinct types or points unrelated to those adjacent to them.The instinctual energies are usually called "self-preservation", "sexual" (also called "intimacy" or "one-to-one") and "social".On the instinctual level, people may internally stress and externally express the need to protect themselves (self-preservation), to connect with important others or partners (sexual), or to get along or succeed in groups (social).]), is a model of the human psyche which is principally understood and taught as a typology of nine interconnected personality types.