Portals of entry are the mucous membranes, non-intact skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tracts, or a mechanism of introduction (percutaneous injury or invasive devices).All of the microorganisms that can cause disease are capable of developing resistance to antibiotics and other drugs that are used to treat infections caused by these pathogens.
Patient or employee complaints about lax infection control practices in private offices will cause an investigation by the Department of Health and/or Education.
Substantiated lapses may result in charges of professional misconduct against licensed healthcare professionals who were directly involved, who were aware of the violations, or who were responsible for ensuring staff education and compliance.
The organism must have a means to exit the reservoir.
In an infected host, the organisms exit through the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, or drainage from a wound.
CRE infections usually do not occur in healthy people; they are more likely to occur in hospitalized patients who have a compromised immune system, patients who are mechanically ventilated, or those who have received multiple antibiotics. Control and prevention of CRE infections should focus on: 1) identifying colonized patients; 2) screening by taking stool, rectal, and perirectal cultures, and wound cultures when appropriate; 3) strict adherence to handwashing protocol; 4) environmental cleaning; 5) patient and staff cohorting; 6) staff education, and; 7) using contact precautions.
(MRSA, ORSA) are common causes of nosocomial infections in hospitals and extended care facilities.
Exemptions may be granted because the professional has completed equivalent course work or because the nature of his or her practice does not require the use of infection control techniques or barrier precautions.
A written application for exemption from completion of this course work must be presented to the Department of Health for approval.
Causative organisms may be bacteria, rickettsiae, viruses, protozoa, fungi, or parasites.
The characteristics of causative organisms are: The organism and its reservoir are the sources of infection.
Failure to comply can result in a citation, potential fines, and other disciplinary action against the facility.