Buprenorphine has both partial opioid agonist and opioid antagonist activity, and provides a milder, less euphoric and less sedating effect than full opioid agonists such as diamorphine or methadone (although these effects are less pronounced with methadone than with diamorphine) (4).The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
The patient can therefore choose the particular drug that they find works best, or the formulation (tablet size) that suits them.
For paediatric suspensions, the choice may be determined by a preferred flavour.
Antihistamines have no role in the acute management of anaphylaxis.
Antihistamines are used in the management of allergic conditions.
This is less of a problem with newer ‘second generation’ antihistamines, such as loratadine, and ‘third generation’ antihistamines such as desloratadine.
The oral antihistamines available in Australia to treat allergic conditions are listed in the Box.
Allergic rhinitis may be seasonal (usually due to grass, tree or weed pollens) or perennial (due to triggers such as pet hair, house dust mite or mould).
It is important to ask the patient if they also have respiratory symptoms as a worsening in allergic rhinitis can lead to increased asthma symptoms.
Buprenorphine (Subutex) was licensed in the UK for the treatment of opiate dependence in 1998 after studies found it to be less addictive than methadone and much safer in overdosage (1).
Buprenorphine has been previously been used in lower dosage as an analgesic preparation (Temgesic).
The sedating, first generation antihistamines now have little role in therapeutics.