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It has a hot desert climate with short, very warm winters but long, extremely hot summers.

The artifacts consist of Acheulian handaxes with a large set of very fine and elaborated “Mousterian” convergent scrapers and points.

Convergent tools, which resemble the one, shown in this post, are abundant at Bouheben as shown by Villa et al.. 3 and 4, the tip was retouched by bifacial invasive flat retouche, removing the thickness of the tip from 0,8 cm to 0,2 cm.

Hartmut Thieme between 19 in the open-cast lignite mine, Schöningen, county Helmstedt district, Germany are ca 300 k.a.

old, and represent the oldest completely preserved hunting weapons worldwide.

A blade concept of Upper Palaeolithic type, which can be regarded as Ahmarian, is characteristic for layer III2b’, whereas several volumetric reduction concepts were used in III2a’ and Ilbase’.

During the lower “intermediate” levels, most frequently a Levallois technique aimed at the production of elongated triangular blanks (Levallois points), often with thinning of the proximal end and by the removal of several small elongated flakes, was employed (Umm el-Tlel point type).

Technologically the sequence at Umm el Tlel provides a long span, containing industries from the Lower to the Upper Palaeolithic.

Three layers (III2b\ III2a’, JIbase’) are regarded as “intermediate”, sandwiched between Mousterian and fully Upper Paleolithic levels, and separated by sterile layers.

Especially elongated forms usually show basal thinning. Morphometric and impact scar analysis suggest that at least some of the points at Bouheben were part of hunting devices. Such thinning on the base and the tip is highly suggestive of a large point hafted on a spear.

The Schöningen Spears, eight wooden throwing spears from the Lower Palaeolithic and an associated cache of approximately 16,000 animal bones, excavated under the management of Dr.

carried out on both faces of the proximal end) forming a bevel, V-shaped in profile and straight or slightly wavy in cross-section.